AMAVU N’AMAVUKO Y’UBUSHINJACYAHA MU RWANDA.

I.UBUSHINJACYAHA MU RWANDA RWO HAMBERE Y’UBUKORONI.

Iyo habaga hari icyaha cyakozwe uwashinjaga yabaga ari uwakorewe icyaha,uwabonye gikorwa cyangwa abahagarariye umuryango w’uwakorewe icyaha.Ikirego cyashyikirizwaga Inteko y’Umuryango w’uwakoze icyaha cyangwa indi nteko mu zavuzwe haruguru,abafite icyo bavuga bose bagahabwa urubuga kugira ngo bagaragaze ukuri  ku buryo icyaha cyakozwe n’uruhare rw’ushinjwa.Birumvikana rero ko icyo gihe nta rwego ruhamye rw’ikurikiranacyaha rwabagaho.

Ubu buryo bwo guca imanza no gushinja ibyaha bwarakomeje kugeza ahagana muri 1917 ubwo hashyirwagaho Inkiko zishinzwe gucira imanza rubanda (les juridictions indigenes) zigahabwa n’ubufasha bwo kuburanisha imanza nshinjabyaha zimwe  na zimwe hagendewe ku mategeko yahindutse. Byatumye inzego z’Ubutabera bw’u Rwanda zigenda zamburwa ubufasha buhoro buhoro kugeza ubwo zivanyweho burundu.

II.UBUSHINJACYAHAHA MU GIHE CY’UBUKORONI.

Guhera muri 1917, Umuyobozi w’Urukiko n’Uwungirije ( Le President du Tribunal ou son Suppliant) nibo bari barahawe ububasha bwo gukoran’imirimo y’Ubushinjacyaha .Byakomeje bityo kugeza taliki ya 5 Nyakanga 1948 ubwo Iteka ry’Umwami ryashyiragaho Ubushinjacyaha nk’urwego rwihariye rutandukanye n’Urukiko. Ubushinjacyaha bwari bukuriwe n’Umushinjacyaha Mukuru wabaga i Leopoldville ariyo Kinshasa y’ubu,mu Rwanda hari Umushinjacyaha Mukuru wungirije ,uwa nyuma akaba yaritwaga De Rode.Umushinjacyaha Wungirije yari afite icyicaro Usumbura ariyo Bujumbura y’ubu (Burundi) afite ububasha buhuza ifasi yose ya Ruanda –Urundi (Procureur auprès  du Tribunal de premiere Instance  du Ruanda-Urundi)

Ubwo bushinjacyaha bwakoraga imirimo yabwo mu Nkiko  zose zo mu Rwanda no mu Burundi,(Tribunal de premiere Instance ,Cour d’Appel et Conseil de Guerre), usibye nkiko z’ibanze  ( Tribunal de Police) aho umuyobozi w’Uruukiko ari nawe wakomeje kuba Umushinjacyaha .Ubushinjacyaha bwayoborwaga na Guverineri w’u Rwanda n’u Burundi ( autorite de tutelle) nawe  wagengwaga na Minisitiri wari ufite za koloni mu nshingano ze muri Leta y’Ububiligi. N’ubwo Icyicaro Gikuru cya Parike ya Ruanda-Urundi yari Usumbura, hariho Parike ya Urundi yari ifite icyicaro I Gitega na Parike y’u Rwanda yari ifite icyicaro I Kigali zombi ziyoborwa na ba Subusititi ba mbere ba Prokireli w’Umwami (w’Ububirigi) bakaba barakurikiranaga ibyaha itegeko ryageneraga igihano cy’ibanze cy’igifungo kiva ku mezi atandatu gusubiza hejuru, bamara gukora ibirego bakabyoherereza Porokireli w’Umwami Usumbura kugira ngo asabe Inkiko ko bihabwa itariki yo kuburanishwa; kuko ibindi byaha byoroheje byari mu bubasha bwa Adiministrareri wa Teritwari. Aha umuntu yakwibutswa ko ubujurire ku manza zaba zaciwe n’Urukiko rwa Mbere rw’Iremezo rwa Ruanda –Urundi bwakorwaga na Porokireri Mukuru mu Rukiko rw’Ubujurire rwa Elizabetiville (Lubumbashi). Mbere gato y’ubwigenge (Hagati y’itariki ya 1 Nyakanga 1960 n’iya 30 Kamena 1962) Urukiko rwa mbere rw’iremezo rw’u Rwanda rwashyizwe mu mazu ya IRSAC (Institut de Recherche Scientifique en Afrique Centrale) i Mamba –Butare ruyobowe n’umucamanza w’Umubirigi. Muri icyo gihe icyicaro cy’Ubushinjacyaha cyari i Kigali cyahise cyimurirwa mu Mujyi wa Butare mu mazu ya IRSAC

( Extension Universitaire) nayo ikaba yari iyobowe na Subusiti wa mbere  wa Porokireri w’Umwami w’Ababiligi.Itegeko ryo muri Kanama 1962 rishyiraho imiterere,ububasha bw’Inkiko; n’itegeko  ryo ku wa 30 Nyakanga 1964 rishyiraho Sitati y’Ubushinjacyaha yaje  ashyiraho Ubushinjacyaha mu Rwanda ariko ntiyagira icyo ahindura ku miterere no ku bufasha ; usibye ku bufasha bushingiye ku ifasi kuko Igihugu cyari kimaze kubona ubwigenge.

Muri 2003, u Rwanda rwashyizeho itegeko nshinga rishya ryubahiriza ihame ryo gutandukanya inzego. Ryashyizeho ubucamanza bwigenga kandi butandukanye n’inteko ishinga amategeko n’inzego za leta zubahiriza amategeko. Mu gihe kimwe, kandi bwa mbere mu mateka y’ubutabera bw’u Rwanda, akazi k’ubushinjacyaha kahawe urwego rumwe: Ubushinjacyaha Bukuru bufite mu nshingano zabwo iperereza no gukurikirana ibyaha byakorewe ku butaka bw’u Rwanda cyangwa byakozwe n’abanyarwanda.